Weight-loss (bariatric) surgery helps you lose weight and lowers your risk of medical problems associated with being obese. Bariatric surgery contributes to weight loss by Restriction and Malabsorption.
In restriction, Surgery is used to physically limit the amount of food the stomach can hold, which limits the number of calories you can eat, while in malabsorption, Surgery is used to shorten or bypass part of the small intestine, which reduces the number of calories and nutrients the body absorbs.
You may be a candidate for weight loss surgery:
- If you’re an obese grown-up,
- If you have a weight-related condition, such as type 2 diabetes.
- If you’re committed to making lifestyle changes to keep the weight off
- If you know the risks and benefits.
- If you’re ready to adjust how you eat after the surgery.
There are many types of weight loss surgery (bariatric surgery) available, and each type has advantages and disadvantages.
Types of Weight-loss Surgery
Here are 5 types of weight-loss surgery, and a very brief description of how each procedure will help you lose weight:
Gastric Sleeve –
- A big slice of your stomach will be removed
- You will feel full faster after eating
- You will lose weight quickly because you will not be able to eat as much
- Your smaller stomach will secrete fewer hunger-causing hormones, and you will feel less hungry generally and full sooner while eating
- Your stomach will be split into 2 parts of a small pouch at the top and a rest at the bottom
- Your intestines will be rearranged to bypass the top portion of your small intestines
- You will follow a strict diet, or you will have problems with malnutrition and dumping syndrome
- You will lose weight quickly because your smaller stomach pouch will cause you to feel full sooner while eating, and you will not be able to eat as much
- Finally, your body will absorb fewer minerals
- A big portion of your stomach will be removed, and your intestines will be rearranged to bypass a long portion of your small intestines
- Your gallbladder will be detached
- You will feel full sooner while eating, and you will lose weight quickly because your smaller stomach will secrete fewer hunger-causing hormones
- As a result, your body will absorb fewer minerals and calories
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
- a band containing an inflatable balloon is placed around the upper part of the stomach and fixed in place.
- This constructs a small stomach pouch above the band with a very narrow opening to the rest of the stomach.
- A port is then placed under the skin of the abdomen, and a tube connects the port to the band.
- By injecting or removing fluid through the port, the balloon can be inflated or deflated to adjust the size of the band.
- Gastric banding restricts the amount of food that your stomach can hold, so you feel full sooner.
- However, it doesn’t reduce the absorption of calories and nutrients.
- The Maestro Rechargeable System works like a pacemaker to deliver electrical pulses to a nerve between the stomach and the brain, called the vagus nerve.
- This nerve tells the brain when the stomach is full.
- The device is implanted in the abdomen and has a remote control that can adjust it from outside the body.
With any type of weight loss surgery, you still need to focus on eating a healthy diet and becoming more active as part of your lifestyle changes.
The most common side effects of weight-loss surgery include:
- excessive sweating,
- increased gas, and
More serious side effects can include:
- leaks from the places where your stitches are, and
- Blood clots in the legs that can move to the heart and lungs.
Long-term problems following weight loss surgery depend on which type of surgery you have, but one of the most common issues, especially with gastric bypass, is “dumping syndrome.”
In dumping syndrome, food moves too quickly through the small intestine, and create symptoms like nausea, weakness, sweating, faintness, diarrhea after eating, and not being able to eat sweets without feeling very weak.
Finally, gallstones can form when you lose a lot of weight quickly, but to help prevent them, you may be advised to take supplemental bile salts for the first 6 months after surgery, and you’ll need to make sure you’re getting enough nutrients, too, especially if the surgery made it harder for your body to absorb nutrients from food.
Rapid weight loss and nutritional deficiencies can harm a developing baby, and women of childbearing age who get weight loss surgery are advised to avoid pregnancy until their weight becomes stable.